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The aim of this brief is to explain how to take into account the gender gap in agriculture in the development of site-specific CSA-sensitive practices, such as those described in other briefs in this series, through the adoption of a gender-responsive approach. This approach means that the  particular needs, priorities, and realities of men and women need to be recognized and adequately addressed in the design and application of CSA so that both men and women can equally benefit. as changes in agriculture are pursued in response to a changing climate, there needs to be a consideration of...
This report found that women in Asian countries are disproportionately concentrated in the lowest-paid jobs and informal work, lack access to benefits, and shoulder roughly 2.5 times the amount of unpaid domestic and care work as men. The report argues that efforts to address the deep, structural gender inequalities that lead to discrimination and violence against women — whose roles are historically undervalued and therefore paid less, which in turn makes it difficult for women to assert their rights — and advance women's empowerment are essential to ensuring equality and economic progress....
Rapidly falling renewable technology costs and new business models mean that decentralized energy solutions hold great promise to accelerate universal sustainable energy access. Across developing countries, women are typically the primary household energy managers. Close to their customers, women entrepreneurs have the potential to lower customer acquisition and servicing costs and drive these new decentralized solutions. However, they remain under-represented in the industry. This paper attempts to understand the root causes of this gender gap. It formulates the research hypothesis that...
In this General Recommendation (GR), the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) clarifies State obligations to ensure the rights of rural women, with a focus on article 14 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (“the Convention”) which recognizes the unique situation of rural women and highlights specific obligations of States parties in recognizing, promoting and protecting their rights. Article 14 is the only provision in an international human rights treaty which specifically pertains to rural women. However, all...
This report from the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) consolidates existing academic and policy research around climate resilience, water security, and gender (see Box 1), and presents new evidence from Malawi and Ethiopia. Researchers used primary and secondary evidence to explain how women and men in rural areas are differently affected by water insecurity. They analysed how gender and poverty mediate access to and control of water and other resources, and what this means for women’s and men’s opportunities and livelihoods, particularly in the face of climate variability. The report...
The 2015-2020 Gender Plan of Action is part of a continuing response to global commitments that follows the recommendations of Parties to recognize the relevance of gender considerations to the achievement of the Convention's objectives. The Plan's four strategic objectives are to: (1) mainstream a gender perspective into the work of Parties and the Secretariat to implement the Convention; (2) promote gender equality in achieving the Convention objectives, the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets; (3) demonstrate the benefits of gender mainstreaming...
This research is the first scholarly assessment of its kind to understand how innovations have improved women’s well-being, empowered women and advanced gender equality. International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). examined eight catalytic innovations in three domains that intersect areas with the greatest need and most creative entry points for realizing women’s empowerment: (1) technology use (2) social norm change and (3) economic resilience. When innovations are examined with a gender lens, a powerful, untapped strategy emerged to transform women’s lives. ICRW identified seven core...
Land statistics disaggregated by sex are useful for showcasing the disparities in land rights between women and men. They also provide a sense of women’s economic empowerment in agriculture. Unfortunately, land statistics are not always used properly. This infographic tries to understand and interpret better the different land statistics available in FAO’s Gender and Land Rights Database (GLRD).
This working paper synthesizes knowledge within CGIAR on adaptation measures in agricultural systems, for the benefit of parties and observers preparing submissions to the UNFCCC SBSTA. Experience from CGIAR and partners indicate that adaptation measures covering policy, technological, financial, institutional, and research interventions are being tested and applied in agricultural systems in low-income and middle-income countries.  Lessons include the need to ensure context-specificity when designing adaptation measures, engaging farmers in decision-making, and combining indigenous and...

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